There are hundreds of different psychological phobias that can appear in patients for different reasons. When a person has a psychological phobia, they will often experience: If you or someone you know has a psychological phobia, it can be very helpful to seek treatment and to look for therapy and counseling.
According to Barlowpeople may develop psychological vulnerabilities to anxiety as a result of early life experiences.
One such vulnerability is the lack of "perceived control" over stressful life circumstances. Researchers have found the actual presence of stressors alone do create anxiety.
It is important to realize that this lack of control may, or may not, be accurate. When children repeatedly experience a lack of control over the events in their lives, they may come to view the world as unpredictable and dangerous. This worldview may lead to feelings of helplessness.
As a result, they develop a tendency to expect negative outcomes, no matter how they may try to prevent them. One of these is family dynamics, particularly parenting style. An overly protective parenting style can communicate the world is a dangerous place.
Its opposite, an under-protective, low-care style, results in an unstructured, chaotic world filled with stress.
Another early life experience affecting perception of control is the loss of, or separation from, primary caregivers. This is not to say that our psychological trajectory is fixed in childhood and that nothing can be done to change it. Instead, it simply means that early experiences can contribute to a psychological vulnerability.
It explains, in part, why some people are more prone to experience anxiety than others are. People with anxiety disorders often report they have no control over their symptoms.
This lack of control is highly distressing to them.
This may explain why the well-intentioned attempts of loved ones to offer reassurance, are often met with doubt by the person with an anxiety disorder.
The term "cognitive appraisal" simply means the way we evaluate and assess a particular environmental event or situation. According to Lazarus and Folkmancognitive appraisal is made up of two separate types of beliefs.
These beliefs are referred to as "primary" and "secondary" appraisals.
Primary appraisal can be further broken down into three separate categories including "irrelevant," "benign-positive," and "stressful. For example, suppose you are interviewing for a job. The receptionist asks you to sit in a waiting room. You look around the room and notice most people are sloppily dressed, while you are meticulously groomed in preparation for this important day.
You conclude the other people must not be waiting for a job interview. You decide they must be in the waiting area for some other reason.
This is an irrelevant appraisal. In other words, the other people in the waiting room do not affect your well-being in any way. Returning to our prior example, suppose you are interviewing for the same job.
However, this time when you observe the other sloppily dressed people in the waiting room, you conclude they are job candidates for the same job. All of you are waiting for your interviews. This appraisal might cause you to believe you have a significant advantage over the other job candidates.
In contrast, a stress appraisal refers to an instance where the occurrence of an event leads to beliefs that forecast harm.Figuring out phobia. The biology of fear. All phobias are anxiety disorders, lumped in the same class as post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder, among others.
And anxiety disorders are, fundamentally, based on fear. American Psychological Foundation; APA Annual Convention; APA Center for Organizational Excellence;. Start studying Psychological Explanation of Phobia's - Diathesis Stress Model (Bullet Point 3).
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The fear or anxiety is persistent and typically lasts for six months or longer.
The avoidance, anxious anticipation, or distress interferes significantly with the person's social, academic, or. Phobia treatments that are based on the psychology of fear tend to focus on techniques like systematic desensitization and flooding.
Both techniques work with your body’s physiological and psychological responses to reduce the fear. A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.
The phobia typically results in a rapid onset of fear and is present for more than six months. The affected person goes to great lengths to avoid the situation or object, to a degree greater than the actual danger posed. If the feared object or situation cannot be avoided, the affected. Simply having a biological predisposition, or a heightened sensitivity to stress, is not enough to develop an anxiety disorder.
As previously mentioned, a person is more likely to develop an anxiety disorder if they are biologically predisposed to anxiety, in conjunction with a psychological.