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HistoriographyPhilosophy of historyPeople's historyHistorical determinismand Historicism The discovery of the materialist conception of history, or rather, the consistent continuation and extension of materialism into the domain of social phenomenon, removed two chief defects of earlier historical theories.
In the first place, they at best examined only the ideological motives of the historical activity of human beings, without grasping the objective laws governing the development of the system of social relations All constituent features of a society social classes, political pyramid, ideologies are assumed to stem from economic activity, an idea often portrayed with the metaphor of the base and superstructure.
The base and superstructure metaphor describes the totality of social relations by which humans produce and re-produce their social existence. The base includes the material forces of production, that is the labour and material means of production and relations of production, i.
From this base rises a superstructure of legal and political "forms of social consciousness" of political and legal institutions that derive from the economic base that conditions the superstructure and a society's dominant ideology.
Conflicts between the development of material productive forces and the relations of production provokes social revolutions and thus the resultant changes to the economic base will lead to the transformation of the superstructure.
Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary reconstitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes".
Accordingly, Marx designated human history as encompassing four stages of development in relations of production: Criticism of capitalism Further information: Opposition to capitalism and Criticism of capitalism According to the Marxist theoretician and revolutionary Vladimir Lenin"the principal content of Marxism" was "Marx's economic doctrine".
Exploitation has been a socioeconomic feature of every class society and is one of the principal features distinguishing the social classes. The power of one social class to control the means of production enables its exploitation of the other classes.
In capitalism, the labour theory of value is the operative concern; the value of a commodity equals the socially necessary labour time required to produce it. Under that condition, surplus value the difference between the value produced and the value received by a labourer is synonymous with the term "surplus labour", thus capitalist exploitation is realised as deriving surplus value from the worker.
In pre-capitalist economies, exploitation of the worker was achieved via physical coercion. In the capitalist mode of production, that result is more subtly achieved and because workers do not own the means of production, they must voluntarily enter into an exploitive work relationship with a capitalist in order to earn the necessities of life.
The worker's entry into such employment is voluntary in that they choose which capitalist to work for. However, the worker must work or starve, thus exploitation is inevitable and the "voluntary" nature of a worker participating in a capitalist society is illusory. Alienation is the estrangement of people from their humanity German: Gattungswesen, "species-essence", "species-being"which is a systematic result of capitalism.
Under capitalism, the fruits of production belong to the employers, who expropriate the surplus created by others and so generate alienated labourers.
Social classes See also: Social classClass conflictClassless societyand Three-component theory of stratification Marx distinguishes social classes on the basis of two criteria: Following this criterion of class based on property relations, Marx identified the social stratification of the capitalist mode of production with the following social groups: They subdivide as bourgeoisie and the petite bourgeoisie.
Petite bourgeoisie are those who work and can afford to buy little labour power i. Marxism predicts that the continual reinvention of the means of production eventually would destroy the petite bourgeoisie, degrading them from the middle class to the proletariat.
Having no interest in international or national economics affairs, Marx claimed that this specific sub-division of the proletariat would play no part in the eventual social revolution. Class consciousness denotes the awareness—of itself and the social world—that a social class possesses and its capacity to rationally act in their best interests, hence class consciousness is required before they can effect a successful revolution and thus the dictatorship of the proletariat.
Without defining ideology Marx used the term to describe the production of images of social reality. According to Engels, "ideology is a process accomplished by the so-called thinker consciously, it is true, but with a false consciousness. The real motive forces impelling him remain unknown to him; otherwise it simply would not be an ideological process.
Hence he imagines false or seeming motive forces". In The German Ideology, he says "[t]he ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas, i. In Marxism, political economy is the study of the means of production, specifically of capital and how that manifests as economic activity.
Marxism taught me what society was. I was like a blindfolded man in a forest, who doesn't even know where north or south is. If you don't eventually come to truly understand the history of the class struggle, or at least have a clear idea that society is divided between the rich and the poor, and that some people subjugate and exploit other people, you're lost in a forest, not knowing anything.
Through working class revolution, the state which Marxists see as a weapon for the subjugation of one class by another is seized and used to suppress the hitherto ruling class of capitalists and by implementing a commonly-owned, democratically controlled workplace create the society of communism, which Marxists see as true democracy.tantra sodomy and homosexuality in satanic ritual - homo-occultism, forced pederasty, tantra, sodomy, anal sex.
I. The Notion of Atheism. In ancient and modern languages the term "atheism" derives from the Greek atheótes, from which we have the Latin atheismus (It.
ateismo, Fr. athéisme, Ger. Atheismus).As is well-known, the privative "a" in Greek expresses, as it does in Sanskrit, both the denial and deprivation of what is asserted by the noun: á . I. A spectre is haunting Europe.
Several spectres, actually. One of them is the spectre of communism. The others are literal ghosts. They live in abandoned mansions. Problems in Karl Marx’s Analysis of Religion As interesting and insightful as Marx’s analysis and critiques are, they are not without their problems - historical and economic.
Because of these problems, it would not be appropriate to accept Marx’s ideas uncritically.
Written after the Vietnam War during peak rage against the establishment, Rules For Radicals has served as one of the manuals for liberals in achieving power, culminating in Obama’s presidency. Surprisingly, it is light on actionable steps. Instead of telling you exactly how to start a DIY revolution, it creates an activist “mood” where you can .
Social Science Dictionary with a Durkheim bias, linked to Andrew Roberts' Social Science History.