Quote It was the memo heard around the world: Nonsense, shot back advocates for flexible arrangements: Without interruptions from co-workers or time wasted in traffic, telecommuters are often more productive than their in-office compatriots, not less. The debate highlights a broader issue that goes well beyond the struggling Silicon Valley giant — the widespread disagreement and lack of clarity over what constitutes productivity in the modern workforce.
Introduction Common experience tells us that information and communication technologies ICTs are critically important for the modern economy.
It is therefore important that we understand what we know about the economic impacts of ICTs and where are the limits of our current knowledge. This is not the case. For example, empirical studies on the economic impacts of ICTs rely heavily on price indices that convert nominal prices and production into "real output" by adjusting for quality changes in products.
A closer look on the sources of quality adjustments in computing prices reveals that such adjustments are conceptually ambiguous, as they make the value of money dependent on technical progress.
This, in effect, translates the economic output into "real output" using technical characteristics that by default impute the assumed economic growth and points to a circular logic in the treatment of output value, growth, and productivity. Without quality adjustments, semiconductor and computer industries have expanded relatively slowly during the last decades, as rapidly dropping nominal prices have to a large extent cancelled the growth in volume.
Much of the measured productivity growth depends on the very rapid technical improvements in semiconductors, which price indices translate into growth of real outputs and investments.
Theoretically consistent quality adjustments also lead to prices that are not additive across product categories or time, indicating that the conventionally adopted approaches are conceptually inadequate.
It is therefore not clear how much economic growth there has been during the last decade, and to what extent the growth can be associated with ICTs. Economists have extensively discussed alternative explanations of the apparently limited impact of ICTs on growth and productivity during the last two decades.
This discussion has made visible important measurement problems, and it has also highlighted potentially important conceptual challenges in the conventional ways of measuring growth and productivity in the knowledge society.
The famous "Solow paradox" can be interpreted as an indication of a need for a new productivity paradigm. A conceptualization of productivity that would allow substantial analysis of the impacts of ICT seems to require reconsideration of the links between growth and development.
At the organizational level, ICTs are composite goods that consist of hardware, software, skills, systems integration, operational support, and infrastructure. Beneficial deployment of ICTs requires incremental innovation and reconfiguration of existing investments and resources.
This makes it difficult to isolate the impact of specific investments in ways that typical growth accounting frameworks would require. ICTs themselves facilitate rapid recombination of existing investments, accelerating creative destruction within organizations and the overall economy, and making structural, contextual, and institutional factors increasingly important for growth.
Conventional approaches in business accounting and national accounts treat some of the associated costs as consumption and some as investments, and they often remain blind to the historical and social investments that are needed for the productive use of ICTs.
Research on knowledge management has highlighted the systemic nature and the interdependent elements that make ICT investments productive. As accurate measurement of investments in "ICT products" is critical for productivity studies, it is important that we conceptualize these products in an appropriate way.
A multidimensional and holistic conceptualization of ICTs allows the researchers to address the different complementary elements that are needed to make ICTs productive. In the knowledge society, the traditional concept of productivity faces both old and new challenges.Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify methods appropriate for measuring the direct productivity of facilities management (FM) with respect to the providers, on both the industry level and the firm level.
Design/methodology/approach This is a literature survey and conceptual analysis. METHODS OF PRODUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS IN OECD COUNTRIES Therefore, the statistics offices in the region of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) have increasingly become engaged in the measurement of produc - lowing is a brief overview of some interesting studies .
Studies show that office environment has a great impact on employees’ productivity and work efficiency. You may not think much about it, but the way an office is set up, from individual desks to the office’s lighting, affects how people perform.
A growing body of evidence suggests that the open office undermines the very things that it was designed to achieve. according to every measure: the new space was disruptive, stressful, and.
Read chapter Measuring Productivity in Services Industries: Beginning by dispelling some of the myths about services, this provocative volume examines the. Economic productivity in the Knowledge Society: A critical review of productivity theory and the impacts of ICT According to several widely publicized and influential studies, information and communication technologies (ICTs) were a major source of productivity growth during the s in many developed countries.