You came across this page because either you want to learn about computer science, want to learn computer science, or want a computer science job. Whatever your motivation, computer science may seem like witchery to you.
Charles Babbage sometimes referred to as the "father of computing". Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division.
Further, algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before the development of sophisticated computing equipment.
Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in InThomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry [note 1] when he released his simplified arithmometerwhich was the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment.
Charles Babbage started the design of the first automatic mechanical calculator, his Difference Engineinwhich eventually gave him the idea of the first programmable mechanical calculator, his Analytical Engine. When the machine was finished, some hailed it as "Babbage's dream come true".
Computer science began to be established as a distinct academic discipline in the s and early s. The first computer science degree program in the United States was formed at Purdue University in Although many initially believed it was impossible that computers themselves could actually be a scientific field of study, in the late fifties it gradually became accepted among Computer science study guide greater academic population.
Initially, computers were quite costly, and some degree of humanitarian aid was needed for efficient use—in part from professional computer operators.
As computer adoption became more widespread and affordable, less human assistance was needed for common usage. Contributions[ edit ] The German military used the Enigma machine shown here during World War II for communications they wanted kept secret.
The start of the " Digital Revolution ", which includes the current Information Age and the Internet.
It also enabled advanced study of the mind, and mapping of the human genome became possible with the Human Genome Project. Algorithmic trading has increased the efficiency and liquidity of financial markets by using artificial intelligencemachine learningand other statistical and numerical techniques on a large scale.
Even films that feature no explicit CGI are usually "filmed" now on digital camerasor edited or post-processed using a digital video editor. Modern computers enable optimization of such designs as complete aircraft.
Notable in electrical and electronic circuit design are SPICE, as well as software for physical realization of new or modified designs.
The latter includes essential design software for integrated circuits. There are many applications of AI, some of which can be seen at home, such as robotic vacuum cleaners. It is also present in video games and on the modern battlefield in drones, anti-missile systems, and squad support robots.
Human—computer interaction combines novel algorithms with design strategies that enable rapid human performance, low error rates, ease in learning, and high satisfaction.
Researchers use ethnographic observation and automated data collection to understand user needs, then conduct usability tests to refine designs.
Key innovations include the direct manipulationselectable web links, touchscreen designs, mobile applications, and virtual reality. Because of this, several alternative names have been proposed.
Danish scientist Peter Naur suggested the term datalogy,  to reflect the fact that the scientific discipline revolves around data and data treatment, while not necessarily involving computers.
The first scientific institution to use the term was the Department of Datalogy at the University of Copenhagen, founded inwith Peter Naur being the first professor in datalogy. The term is used mainly in the Scandinavian countries. An alternative term, also proposed by Naur, is data science ; this is now used for a distinct field of data analysis, including statistics and databases.
Also, in the early days of computing, a number of terms for the practitioners of the field of computing were suggested in the Communications of the ACM—turingineer, turologist, flow-charts-man, applied meta-mathematician, and applied epistemologist.
For example, the study of computer hardware is usually considered part of computer engineeringwhile the study of commercial computer systems and their deployment is often called information technology or information systems. However, there has been much cross-fertilization of ideas between the various computer-related disciplines.
Computer science research also often intersects other disciplines, such as philosophy, cognitive sciencelinguisticsmathematicsphysicsbiologystatisticsand logic.
Computer science is considered by some to have a much closer relationship with mathematics than many scientific disciplines, with some observers saying that computing is a mathematical science.AP® Computer Science Teacher’s Guide Deborah Power Carter Lancaster Country Day School Lancaster, Pennsylvania.
An algorithm is a set of clear steps aimed to accomplish a task in a given period of time. Start studying Computer Science Study Guide. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Complete CCENT preparation with hands-on practice and robust study aids. The CCENT Study Guide, 3 rd Edition offers complete conceptual and practical study tools for the Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician exam.
Written by networking expert Todd Lammle, this study guide provides everything you need to pass the CCENT with flying colors. % coverage of the all exam objectives includes. Thank you for your posting!
I’m a novice to computer science and I really enjoyed your article for two reasons. First, since I’ve been working very slowly through Learning Python the Hard Way, your metaphors for explaining concepts rang very true for me.
Webopedia Study Guides. Webopedia study guides are designed to help high school, IB (International Baccalaureate) and entry-level university or college students prepare for computer science tests, quizzes and exams.