A perceptual history of New Orleans neighborhoods Richard Campanella, Tulane School of Architecture illustration by Ashlee Arceneaux photographed by Jeffery Johnston We allow for a certain level of ambiguity when we speak of geographical regions. Accuracy and precision are not synonymous.
A Brief Ec onomic History Economic history is an important field of study.
In the so-called primitive economiesfood was the greatest wealth, which was directly related to the land. As political empires grew, so would their wealth-concentrating capacities. The earliest industries, such as the forging of copper and irongrew from artistic endeavors, and the metal that became the subject of more human passion than any other, gold, may have been the first metal that was worked, although it is more generally thought that copper was worked first.
Gold was associated with the Sun, was considered a sacred substance in many cultures, and was used in artwork. Gold was too soft to make tools or weapons, but it became the artistic and sacred metal.
Whereas the Fertile Crescent had little gold, Egypt had the first great gold mines, out in the desert.
Worked by slaves, with their bones littering the mines, Egypt set the pattern of Western gold mining labor standards. The slaves were deemed expendable, and properly feeding and housing them was more costly than obtaining new slaves, so the logic of the day demanded that the slaves be worked to death in the minesif they even survived the journey to them.
Gold abounded in the royal quarters, their thrones, and tombs. Gold was officially a royal monopoly, although there was a black market for it.
The gold made its way in small measure to the commoners, and the other burgeoning civilizations lusted for it. The gold buried with the Pharaohs was eventually dug up by grave robbers and made its way into the economy as jewelry and a symbol of wealth.
In the Old Testa ment, even the Jewish god lusted for gold. Egypt eventually declined, and from Assyria to Babylonia, from Hittites to Minoans to Phoenicians and Carthaginians, from Persia to Greece, empires continually rose and fell in that region. Gold was a central concern of all of them, and was the universal measure of wealth.
As an empire rose, it plundered all the gold it could from its neighbors. The same piece of gold could pass through many incarnations over the millennia, perhaps starting as a work of art after being gleaned from the earth.
Then it was buried with its owner, then the grave was robbed and it was sold for food. Mining took place across that part of the world, usually in or near mountains. Using much of what the Etruscans taught them, the Roman Empire built great buildings, roads, and aqueducts that people still marvel over.
The Roman Empire was also one of the most murderous, greedy, and cruel regimes that the world has known. Political murder, debauchery, and greed were standard features of Roman life.
If one became part of the middle class or better, life could be pretty good. Yet, the Roman Empire was built on the blood and bones of those who did the work. To entertain the masses, people were forced to murder one another at the various arenas, and the grandest was the Coliseum, where the Emperor would lead the festivities.
The slaves often preferred taking their chances in the arenas rather than work in the imperial mines.
Rome eventually ran out of energy and collapsedand Europe reverted to a primarily agrarian culture for the next millennium. Civiliz ed people did not comprehend the difference between real wealth and its symbol. Gold was the ultimate currency, because it was scarce and durable.
There is no intrinsic wealth in gold. Ancient peoples could not eat it, or make a tool or weapon from it.
Stephen Miller and I have a few things in common. Both Jewish, we were raised upper-middle class in comfortable, liberal suburbia (he, Santa Monica; me, ou. Author’s note: This essay originally appeared in The Baffler web-zine July The following was my original submission draft. It may contain some typos. The Future of the City by James Howard Kunstler One spring day not so long ago, I had a low-grade epiphany walking across New York’s Central Park from my hotel on the more». May Adults lie constantly to kids. I'm not saying we should stop, but I think we should at least examine which lies we tell and why. There may also be a benefit to us.
A produce of which the value is principally derived from its scarcity, is necessarily degraded by its abundance. It is perhaps the most disadvantageous lottery in the world, or the one in which the gain of those who draw the prizes bears the least proportion to the loss of those who draw the blanks: Projects of mining, instead of replacing the capital employed in them, together with the ordinary profits of stock commonly absorb both capital and profit.Photography and sociology have approximately the same birth date, if you count sociology’s birth as the publication of Comte’s work which gave it its name, and photography’s birth as the date in when Daguerre made public his method for fixing an image on a metal plate.
2 From the beginning, both worked on a variety of projects. Among these, for both, was the exploration of society.
Even if the bank could not find a bona fide buyer, it was supposed to write down the property to fair market value on the books and take the loss on its financial statements. By Lt Daniel Furseth. Today, I stopped caring about my fellow man.
I stopped caring about my community, my neighbors, and those I serve. I stopped caring today because a once noble profession has become despised, hated, distrusted, and mostly unwanted.
- Bruce Meland & Prius Plug-In in front of Ripleys Believe It or Not Museum, St. Augustine, FL - Electrifying Times editor Bruce Meland and Dave Farnsworth, electronics Inventor drove to St Augustine from Bend Oregon in their 05 Prius fully loaded with lbs of electronic gear.
Author’s note: This essay originally appeared in The Baffler web-zine July The following was my original submission draft.
It may contain some typos.
The Future of the City by James Howard Kunstler One spring day not so long ago, I had a low-grade epiphany walking across New York’s Central Park from my hotel on the more». From the beginning, both sociology and photography worked on a variety of projects.
Among these, for both, was the exploration of society.