Top Nonfiction list is a concise selection of books that provides the reader with an understanding of the social and natural world.
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Review the full course description and key learning outcomes and create an account and enrol if you want a free statement of participation. Free course Factors that influence health: An introduction 3 Individual lifestyle factors As you have seen above, emphasis on individual lifestyle as a determinant of health can be seen in most policies and strategies.
The main issues addressed usually include diet and physical activity, tobacco and alcohol use, drug intake and sexual activity, although, at various times, other issues have also fallen within this rubric, for example, exposure to the sun and use of seat belt or child car seat.
Many attempts to promote public health have focused on the individual and their lifestyle, and this seems to be a fairly common-sense approach. After all, it could be argued that if individuals ate a little less and took more exercise, then they would be less likely to become obese.
If they smoked less and drank less alcohol they would be at a reduced risk of long-term conditions such as heart disease or cirrhosis, and if individuals engaged in safe sex, then they would be less likely to become infected with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections.
Individual behaviour can play an important part in health and illness, so maintaining a healthy lifestyle could well be simply a matter of self-control. However, as outlined below, lifestyle accounts have been challenged on several counts.
At a practical level, research has shown that it is very difficult to change individual behaviour.
Although there have been some instances of success e. For example, although smoking has declined over time, a recent Omnibus Survey Lader and Goddard, of smoking behaviour found that nearly 80 per cent of current smokers had tried unsuccessfully to give up smoking; and of these, 46 per cent had received advice on smoking cessation.
Many theories and models have been developed to help explain individual health behaviours. However, one of the key problems facing those promoting public health is the failure of many individuals to follow healthy lifestyle advice.
Two key explanations have been put forward to explain this. The second explanation draws on the idea that individuals can believe that health is largely determined by external factors, therefore denying the relevance of individual behavioural change.
For example, a study of stress among mothers caring for children with intellectual impairments found an internal locus of control to be a protective factor Hassall et al.
A study of perceived risk for breast cancer also noted that women with an internal locus of control were more likely to engage in protective health behaviours such as attending screening Rowe et al.
However, taking control is subject to the ability to take responsibility for health and to make choices, both of which are governed by power relations. In other words, not everyone is free to make decisions and choices, since individual choice and control can be constrained both by other people and by the factors that influence health.
While targeting individual behaviour might seem to be common sense, it is important to recognise that distinct patterns of behaviour can be found among different social groups. For example, Table 1 shows that people in routine and manual occupations are more likely to smoke than people with non-manual occupations.
Figure 5 shows changing patterns of excessive alcohol consumption, demonstrating that younger people are more likely to drink to excess and that women are now more likely to drink excessively in comparison to previous years. Lifestyle accounts draw on notions of individual choice.
It is important to ask why young women are drinking to excess and why men in manual occupations are twice as likely to smoke as men in managerial or professional occupations. Writing specifically about reproductive choice, for example, Petchesky argues that, to be meaningful, the right to choose must carry with it the enabling conditions that will make that right concretely realisable and universally available:Herbert in Newton, Massachusetts, Books, Articles and Reviews about Herbert Marcuse.
list compiled by Harold Marcuse (Harold's UCSB homepage)from US . Get an answer for 'Geography of ChinaHow did geography and climate influence the early development of Chinese civilization? Were their influences greater than those of governmental and economic.
Ibn Khaldun was an influential thinker in philosophy of history. the strictly empirical approach of B.
F. Skinner's behaviorism affected for decades the approach of the American psychological differences in abilities, grade differences and the lack of role models in philosophy could be potential factors for the gender gap.
The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay. Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate.
Some of the most influential factors that affected Athens' rise and fall were their form of government, their leadership, and their arrogance. Ancient Greece: The Most Influential Civilization Throughout history, civilizations have had many forms of government and many styles of art and architecture.
But despite some fantastic architecture and some legitimate forms of government, no civilizations have influenced today’s government, art and architecture quite like the ancient Greeks.