Keith Ward, former Regius Professor of Divinity and head of the theology department at Oxford University, wrote a highly acclaimed five-volume series on comparative religions. But atheism and agnosticism fit many of the diverse definitions of religion present in religious scholarship.
The "Aryan" in this context means " Iranian ". The word Aryan was therefore adopted to refer not only to the Indo-Iranian peoplesbut also to native Indo-European speakers as a whole, including the RomansGreeksand the Germans. It was soon recognised that BaltsCeltsand Slavs also belonged to the same group.
It was argued that all of these languages originated from a common root — now known as Proto-Indo-European — spoken by an ancient people who were thought of as ancestors of the EuropeanIranianand Indo-Aryan peoples.
This usage was common among knowledgeable authors writing in the late 19th and early 20th century. An example of this usage appears in The Outline of Historya bestselling work by H.
Inin A Short History of the WorldWells depicted a highly diverse group of various "Aryan peoples" learning "methods of civilization" and then, by means of different uncoordinated movements that Wells believed were part of a larger dialectical rhythm of conflict between settled civilizations and nomadic invaders that also encompassed Aegean and Mongol peoples inter alia, "subjugat[ing]" — "in form" but not in "ideas and methods" — "the whole ancient world, Semitic, Aegean and Egyptian alike".
Even Max Muellera linguist who wrote in that "an ethnologist who speaks of Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair, is as great a sinner as a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic dictionary or a brachycephalic grammar",  was on occasion guilty of using the term "Aryan race".
Scientific racism In the context of 19th-century physical anthropology and scientific racismthe term "Aryan race" has been misapplied to all people descended from the Proto-Indo-Europeans — a subgroup of the Europidor " Caucasian " race,   in addition to the Indo-Iranians who are the only people known to have used Arya as an endonym in ancient times.
In his Lectures on the Science of Language Muller referred to Aryans as a "race of people". At the time, the term race had the meaning of "a group of tribes or peoples, an ethnic group".
I must repeat what I have said many times before, it would be wrong to speak of Aryan blood as of dolichocephalic grammar". The word Aryan was consequently used even more restrictively — and even less in keeping with its Indo-Iranian origins — to mean " Germanic ", "Nordic" or Northern Europeans.
He argued that the long-headed " dolichocephalic -blond" Europeans, characteristically found in northern Europe, were natural leaders, destined to rule over more " brachiocephalic " short headed peoples. This idea was widely circulated in both intellectual and popular culture by the early twentieth century,  and is reflected in the concept of " Corded-Nordics " in Carleton S.
Coon 's The Races of Europe. In Germany, Rudolf Virchow launched a study of craniometrywhich prompted him to denounce "Nordic mysticism" in the Anthropology Congress in Karlsruhewhile Josef Kollmanna collaborator of Virchow, stated in the same congress that the people of Europe, be they English, German, French, and Spaniard belonged to a "mixture of various races," furthermore declaring that the "results of craniology Houston Stewart Chamberlaina strong supporter of the theory of a superior Aryan race or Germanic race, attacked Josef Kollmann arguments in detail.
While the "Aryan race" theory remained popular, particularly in Germany, some authors defended Virchow's perspective, in particular Otto SchraderRudolph von Jhering and the ethnologist Robert Hartmann —who proposed to ban the notion of "Aryan" from anthropology. Blavatsky and Henry Steel Olcotta lawyer, agricultural expert, and journalist who covered the Spiritualist phenomena.
Root race The Theosophical movement, founded by Helena Blavatsky and Henry Olcott at the end of the nineteenth century, took inspiration from Indian culture, in this case, perhaps, from the Hindu reform movement the Arya Samaj founded by Swami Dayananda.
Blavatsky argued that humanity had descended from a series of "root races", naming the fifth root race out of seven the Aryan race. She thought that the Aryans originally came from Atlantis and described the Aryan races with the following words: The Aryan races, for instance, now varying from dark brown, almost black, red-brown-yellow, down to the whitest creamy colour, are yet all of one and the same stock — the Fifth Root-Race — and spring from one single progenitor, However, she also claimed that there were modern non-Aryan peoples who were inferior to Aryans.
She regularly contrasts "Aryan" with " Semitic " culture, to the detriment of the latter, asserting that Semitic peoples are an offshoot of Aryans who have become "degenerate in spirituality and perfected in materiality.Genetic engineering has given humans the power to alter the very basis of life on earth which will forever change life as we know it.
This essay will explain the various views on genetic engineering but will primarily concentrate on “the ethics of genetically engineering the designer baby”. The Aryan race is a racial grouping that emerged in the period of the late 19th century and midth century to describe people of Indo-European heritage..
It derives from the idea that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages and their descendants up to the present day constitute a distinctive race or subrace of the Caucasian race. Well, IQ studies aren't all that reliable. For instance, 4 studies were carried in Hong Kong with samples over and one came up with an average IQ of and another came up with a result of Latest environmental news, features and updates.
Pictures, video and more. Is Genetic Engineering Superior or Appalling? The importance of this issue has played second fiddle to the arguments, for and against genetic engineering. This essay will discuss the impact of genetic engineering on everyday life, for example genetic disorders, disease and how its impact on life in the world today.
Genetic engineering otherwise called genetic modification and can basically be described as the ‘direct manipulation of an organism’s genome’ which is the complete set of genetic material of an animal, plant or other living thing.