The Wasp in a wig[ edit ] Lewis Carroll decided to suppress a scene involving what was described as "a wasp in a wig" possibly a play on the commonplace expression "bee in the bonnet". It has been suggested in a biography by Carroll's nephew, Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, that one of the reasons for this suppression was a suggestion from his illustrator, John Tenniel,  who wrote in a letter to Carroll dated 1 June I am bound to say that the 'wasp' chapter doesn't interest me in the least, and I can't see my way to a picture. If you want to shorten the book, I can't help thinking — with all submission — that there is your opportunity.
One of the interesting parts in building the Line Follower Robot is; you could start it with a very simple version by using just two transistors with the LED and LDR for sensor Build Your Own Transistor Based Mobile Line Follower Robot — First Part and enhance it to the programmable version that use microcontroller as the brain for controlling the robot.
The reason of using the microcontroller for the Line Follower Robot is we need to make more robust, reliable and flexible robot which you could not have it from the discrete electronics component robot without changing most of the electronic circuit design.
This will ensure the electronics circuits and the DC motors keep working properly even though the battery voltage level drops below 4. BRAM construction consists of two decks, where the lower deck is used to hold the battery, DC motors and the sensor circuit while the upper deck is used to hold the motor controller circuit and the AVRJazz Mega board.
Put the 3xAA battery and sensor circuit on the lower deck and the motor control circuit at the bottom of the upper deck. Now connect the battery power terminal, sensor circuit power terminal, DC motor power terminal to the Motor Control Circuit and screw the upper deck on the lower deck.
The LD chip is able to handle non repetitive current up to 1. The following are the list of hardware and software used in this tutorial: For the detail electronics components such as transistors, capacitors and resistors please refer to the schematic above.
Atmel AVR Studio v4. Atmel AVR Studio 4.
AVR Visual Studio 4. Therefore by using this step-up switching regulator we could ensure BRAM II electronic circuits and DC motors will still work in their maximum performance until all the battery power being drained out.
One of the important aspect when building a robot is to choose the precise PWM frequency for your DC motor as this could effecting your DC motor response to the PWM signal supplied to it.
This function will also accept negative value arguments which are translated to the reverse DC motor rotation. The Line Sensor Circuit The line sensor is designed to takes advantage of the infra red reflective object sensor Junye JY or you could replace it with Fairchild QRE to sense the black tape line; when the sensor is above the black tape line the infra red beam will not reflected back to the photo transistor and the photo transistor will turn off, if the sensor is on the white surface than the infra red beam will reflected back to the photo transistor and the photo transistor will turn on.
For more information of using the transistor as switch you could read my previous blog Using Transistor as Switch. The reason why we have to carefully calculate the current needed, because all the electronic circuits and DC motors power is taken from the MAX chip which only capable to operate up to mA on 5 Volt output.
The following is the C code that serves that purpose: The proportional, integral and derivative control or PID for short actually is just one of the control methods that can be applied to the embedded system.
The other popular controlling method includes the bang-bang and fuzzy logic is also widely used in the embedded system world. Therefore we could write down the error function as this following formula: This gain factor usually called as the Kp proportional factor in PID control term.
Therefore we could right down the control response as this following formula: The following is the industrial standard PID control mathematic formula: In other word the derivative control will help to reduce the zigzag steering behavior of the robot.
For the purpose of this tutorial I will not describe of how we discretization this mathematic formula using the trapezoidal rule, the following is the complete PID control formula taken from the Thomas Braunl, Embedded Robotics, Second Edition Springer-Verlag Turn off all the Integral and Derivative control by zeroing the Ki and Kd parameters Slowly increase the Proportional parameter Kd by the factor of ten i.
Remember there are no such exact values for the PID parameter; the PID parameter depends heavily on your motor and sensor characteristic. Again most of the functions used in this project are based on my previous posted blogs mention above.
The I2C functions are used to perform reading and writing to the I2C devices: After compiling and simulating our code we are ready to down load the code using the AVRJazz Mega bootloader facility.
The bootloader program is activated by pressing the user switch and reset switch at the same time; after releasing both switches, the 8 blue LED indicator will show that the bootloader program is activate and ready to received command from Atmel AVR Studio v4.This is a fun package with a bible verse for each letter of the alphabet.
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